  # PASCAL

MATHEMATICAL ACTIONS

-    subtraction
*    multiplication
/    division
div   integer division
mod   rest of integer division
In Pascal there is no exponent. However, any power, and therefore the root of any degree, can easily be calculated using the exp function.

xn  =  exp(x * ln(n))

NUMBER TYPES

shortint - integer numbers od -128 do 127
integer - integer numbers od -32768 do 32767
longint - integer numbers od -2147483 do 2147483647
real - float numbers (6 bytes) od 2.9E-39 do 1.7E+38
double - float numbers (8 bytes) od 5.0E-324 do 1.7E+308
extended - float numbers (10 bytes) od 3.4E-4932 do 1.1E+4932

3.4E-38 is the number 3,4 ⋅ 10-38=3.4/1038,  3.4E+38 is the number 3,4 ⋅ 1038 = 3400…00 (37 zeros!)

SELECTED MATHEMATICAL FUNCTIONS

abs – absolute value
sqrt – square root
sqr – square of the number
exp – power of the number e
frac – fractional part of the number
int – total part of the number
ln – natural logarithm
round – mathematical rounding
trunc – cutting off a fractional part of a number
sin – sine
cos – cosine
arctan – arcus tangent