PASCAL


  MATHEMATICAL ACTIONS

   +    addition
   -    subtraction
   *    multiplication
   /    division
   div   integer division
   mod   rest of integer division
In Pascal there is no exponent. However, any power, and therefore the root of any degree, can easily be calculated using the exp function.

      xn  =  exp(x * ln(n))


   NUMBER TYPES

   shortint - integer numbers od -128 do 127
   integer - integer numbers od -32768 do 32767
   longint - integer numbers od -2147483 do 2147483647
   real - float numbers (6 bytes) od 2.9E-39 do 1.7E+38
   double - float numbers (8 bytes) od 5.0E-324 do 1.7E+308
   extended - float numbers (10 bytes) od 3.4E-4932 do 1.1E+4932

3.4E-38 is the number 3,4 ⋅ 10-38=3.4/1038,  3.4E+38 is the number 3,4 ⋅ 1038 = 3400…00 (37 zeros!)


   SELECTED MATHEMATICAL FUNCTIONS

   abs – absolute value
   sqrt – square root
   sqr – square of the number
   exp – power of the number e
   frac – fractional part of the number
   int – total part of the number
   ln – natural logarithm
   round – mathematical rounding
   trunc – cutting off a fractional part of a number
   sin – sine
   cos – cosine
   arctan – arcus tangent